15 May, 2018
"The only way to avoid pain from these sanctions is negotiating with the U.S., but the instruments are not easy to find", Volker Treier, deputy managing director of Germany's Association of Chambers of Commerce and Industry, said in an interview. He said he spoke to U.S. Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin to request exceptions for French companies, a delay in implementing sanctions, and a so-called grandfather clause for companies that invested in Iran while the treaty was in place. Just now he has held the country and the world in thrall with a superb TV demonstration, in which he revealed a wealth of information about Iran's nuclear activities.
German leader Angela Merkel also told Mr Trump on a visit to Washington late last month, that the nuclear deal was insufficient in itself to curb Iran's ambitions in the region. Academics such as Paul Musgrave and Dan Nexon have noted that the foreign-policy community in the United States has become politically polarized in recent years.
In the battle over the Iran nuclear deal, the "nixers", as opposed to the "fixers", won.
But Bolton didn't rule out sanctions for European companies doing business with Iran.
Washington has led concerted international campaigns of sanctions and maximum pressure, intended to force Tehran and Pyongyang to abandon these plans.
Macron and Trump also discussed trade issues. Meanwhile, public investment, at less than 3% of GDP, is hardly enough to pay to maintain and repair existing infrastructure.
The president's decision ended what had become a fierce debate within the administration.
Here are five reasons why the US withdrawal from the Iran nuclear deal has had little impact on the tanker market.
The foreign ministers of Germany, France and the UK - three European signatories of the 2015 deal with Iran - are scheduled to meet their Iranian counterpart Javad Zarif on Tuesday in Brussels.
Iranian President Hassan Rouhani similarly said that the Islamic Republic would stay in the deal if the European countries, along with Russia and China, continued to abide by it. In ancient times, the leaders of the Jewish commonwealth in Palestine tried very hard to please the imperator in Rome.
Unfortunately, the answer is less easy to discern. Getting around it means changing transactions to euros, as part of a larger move to increase financial independence from the United States. It is a precept that has been tried out since the beginning of the world, and it almost never fails. And now that the government has imposed new restrictions on capital flows, the country's attractiveness to foreign investors will fall further.
However, Mr Mianji said he viewed the solidarity of the EU countries as a promising sign of the union's loyalty to the nuclear agreement and opposition of Mr Trump's sanctions. "With prices moving close to $US80 a barrel and with a great opportunity presented to Saudi Arabia and Russia to regain market share without crashing the oil price, we think there is a good chance the current OPEC+ deal will end by the end of 2018, if not before".
Iran also holds enormous political sway in neighboring Iraq and in Lebanon, where its main Shiite ally, the militant Hezbollah group, scored significant gains in weekend elections. Some are converting to Christianity and, according to Professor Parsa, even to the Baha'i faith, which is the largest non-Muslim community in Iran.
Frankly, I think that the rulers of Iran don't give a damn about Israel, except as an useful instrument.